Saturday, March 14, 2020
Loanwords From French, German, Latin, and Spanish On the eve of the First World War, an editorial in the Berlin Deutsche Tageszeitung argued that the German language, coming direct from the hand of God, should be imposed on men of all colors and nationalities. The alternative, the newspaper said, was unthinkable: Should the English language be victorious and become the world language the culture of mankind will stand before a closed door and the death knell will sound for civilization. . . .English, the bastard tongue of the canting island pirates, must be swept from the place it has usurped and forced back into the remotest corners of Britain until it has returned to its original elements of an insignificant pirate dialect.(quoted by James William White in A Primer of the War for Americans. John C. Winston Company, 1914) This sabre-rattling reference to English as the bastard tongue was hardly original. Three centuries earlier, the headmaster of St. Pauls School in London, Alexander Gil, wrote that since the time of Chaucer the English language had been defiled and corrupted by the importation of Latin and French words: [T]oday we are, for the most part, Englishmen not speaking English and not understood by English ears. Nor are we satisfied with having begotten this illegitimate progeny, nourished this monster, but we have exiled that which was legitimateour birthrightpleasant in expression, and acknowledged by our forefathers. O cruel country!(from Logonomia Anglica, 1619, quoted by Seth Lerer in Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language. Columbia University Press, 2007) Not everyone agreed. Thomas De Quincey, for example, regarded such efforts to malign the English language as the blindest of human follies: The peculiar, and without exaggeration we may say the providential, felicity of the English language has been made its capital reproachthat, whilst yet ductile and capable of new impressions, it received a fresh and large infusion of alien wealth. It is, say the imbecile, a bastard language, a hybrid language, and so forth. . . . It is time to have done with these follies. Let us open our eyes to our own advantages.(The English Language, Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, April 1839) In our own time, as suggested by the title of John McWhorters recently published linguistic history*, were more likely to boast about our magnificent bastard tongue. English has unashamedly borrowed words from more than 300 other languages, and (to shift metaphors) theres no sign that it plans to close its lexical borders any time soon. French Loan Words Over the years, the English language has borrowed a great number of French words and expressions. Some of this vocabulary has been so completely absorbed by English that speakers might not realize its origins. Other words and expressions have retained their Frenchnessa certain je ne sais quoi which speakers tend to be much more aware of (although this awareness does not usually extend to actually pronouncing the word in French).Ã German Loan Words in English English has borrowed many words from German. Some of those words have become a natural part of everyday English vocabulary (angst, kindergarten, sauerkraut), while others are primarily intellectual, literary, scientific (Waldsterben, Weltanschauung, Zeitgeist), or used in special areas, such as gestalt in psychology, or aufeis and loess in geology. Some of these German words are used in English because there is no true English equivalent: gemÃ ¼tlich, schadenfreude. Latin Words and Expressions in English Just because our English language doesnt come from Latin doesnt mean all our words have a Germanic origin. Clearly, some words and expressions are Latin, like ad hoc. Others, e.g., habitat, circulate so freely that were not aware theyre Latin. Some came into English when Francophone Normans invaded Britain in 1066. Others, borrowed from Latin, have been modified. Spanish Words Become Our Own Many Spanish loanwords have entered the English vocabulary. As noted, some of them were adopted into the Spanish language from elsewhere before they were passed on to English. Although most of them retain the spelling and even (more or less) the pronunciation of Spanish, they are all recognized as English words by at least one reference source.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Different Models of English - Essay Example English has become the second language in most part of the world with an increasing interest to learn it by masses. Currently, a large number of the users and speakers of the English language are located globally, outside the main heartland where the language originated and flourished. People use the language for variety of purposes such as tourism, business, finance, entertainment, academic and interpersonal relationships and that is the only media of communication which is understood by most of the people to a certain extent. In the above perspective, the paper attempts to study the various available linguistic models for the learning of English with a special reference to Lingua Franca as the suitable model for the English learners in the China. Native-Speaker Model Kachru (2005) propounded his Three Circles Model for English learning. What he described as Inner- Circle that comprises of the countries, which are native developers of the English language such as Britain, U.S., Aust ralia and Canada. Countries such as China, Japan who according to Kachru (2005) fall under Expanding Ã¢â¬â Circle do not have matured version of their own English obviously look at native speakers for their English language programs unlike the Outer-Circle countries. Kirkpatrick (2007) is of the view that Inner-Circle norms are not necessary for countries like China and they need not follow the pattern of pronunciation prevailing in Inner-Circle countries. He is of the clear view that the distinction between native and nativised varieties of English can easily be questioned. American English is a nativised version when compared to British English because some other languages were spoken there before English from Britain arrived there. So taking the grasp of local cultures of America, English got nativised in the American context. Same is also true for Australian English which got nativised through the influence of local cultures. Kirkpatrick (2007) is of the view that all languag es routinely influence each other and evolve. Even current native English language is a mixture of so many other languages such as Greek, Latin, Germanic, French, and other Anglo-Saxon forms. Thus, it is difficult to classify any form of English as native version rather it is easy to classify them as nativised. Nativised Model Roger Anderson (1983) propounded the theory of nativization of language. According to him, the learner of a second language (English) nativises the language input in reference to their first language norm. Learners of the second language failing to identify them with the culture of the target language reject its linguistic norms and tend to nativise it. This has been confirmed by Kachru (2005) when he classifies his theory about The Outer-Circle. He classifies those countries in Outer-Circle, which have been either British or U.S colonies in the past such as India, Kenya, Africa, Pakistan, Singapore, Philippines, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. These countries have su ccessfully developed and adopted to own version of pronunciation of English depending upon their culture and linguistic style and most of them have culminated into mature varieties as described in detail by Schneider (2007). Globish Model Globish is a simple form of English devised by Jean Paul Nerriere, an Ex-vice president of IBM. It has short sentences, no idiomatic expressions and uses basic syntax. It has vocabulary of 1500 words. This was devised by Nerriere to help non-English speakers so that
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Music element report2 - Essay Example No, youÃ¢â¬â¢re would be crooning the songÃ¢â¬â¢s melody for sure. We like and memorize new music pieces by its melody. Rhythm, harmony and form serve as technical elements for building a composition, while melody is a heart of music. It can be compared with driving a car. If the car is good, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy its wheels or its bumper or any other particular detail, you will enjoy the driving process in general. Melody is a reflection of all the music elements structured in one solid piece. I would like to quote the great German composer Johann Krinberger, whose words precisely point at the importance of melody: Ã¢â¬Å"The true goal of musicÃ¢â¬âits proper enterpriseÃ¢â¬âis melody. All the parts of harmony have as their ultimate purpose only beautiful melody. Therefore the question of which is the more significant, melody or harmony, is futile. Beyond doubt, the means is subordinate to the end.Ã¢â¬ (Forte,
Friday, January 31, 2020
Responsible Borrowing Worksheet Essay Many students borrow federal student loans to pay for college. The goal of this assignment is to help you learn how to borrow responsibly, which may mean that you do not borrow at all or that you borrow only what you truly need. To borrow responsibly, you must understand your options and establish a financial plan for your entire program. With that plan in place, you can then focus on your classes and making connections with instructors and other students. There are three steps listed below for this assignment. Respond to the questions for each step in this worksheet only and submit your completed document to the Assignment Files tab. Step 1 Watch the Ã¢â¬Å"Responsible Borrowing (Financial Aid)Ã¢â¬ video on the orientation website located here: http://www.phoenix.edu/student-orientation.html. Respond to the following three questions in the spaces provided below: What is financial aid? How do grants differ from loans? What effect does class attendance have on funding availability? Step 2 Navigate to the Personal Finance category of the GEN/127 PhoenixConnectÃ ® Community. Explore the resources provided and view some of the discussions shared by the community members. Respond to the following two questions in the spaces provided below: What did you find about student loan repayment plans? Why is having an educational financial plan important? Step 3 Access the Financial Plan at www.phoenix.edu/financialplan. Enter your program and respond to the questions. Explore the information about options for payment, reducing cost, and military students (if applicable). If you have already completed the plan as part of the enrollment process, you can use those results for this step. Respond to the following two questions in the spaces provided below: Based on this plan, what is your estimated monthly payment when you enter repayment? As a result of completing the plan, what changes can you make to reduce the amount you may borrow? Why?
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Internet Penetration Identify the different levels of household penetration by the World Wide Web in each of the following continents Ã¢â¬â Asia , Africa , North America , South America and Australia . Explore the reasons for this variation. The countries with the highest internet penetration are predominately those Western economies with strong economies and high levels of affluence. Out of the top 10 countries, European countries feature 6 times, with Sweden having the highest penetration at 73.6% of the population have the internet. Other high ranking countries include Hong Kong (70.7%), The United States of America (USA) (68.5%), Australia (67.2%), Canada (63.8%), Korea (63.3%), Japan (60.9%), Taiwan (60.5%), Singapore (60.2%) and New Zealand (56.8%). The United Kingdom compares well at 60%. (Appendix 2 Internet world stats, 2005) World wide, these 25 countries dominate over 64% of their total population; the internet penetration in the rest of the world is just 7.8% of the remaining population. However, percentages can be misleading; whilst they give a good indication of levels of literacy, affluence and behaviour, the percentage of penetration would not give an indication of size of possible market; the USA has the largest market at 202,888,307; the next largest being Japan at 78,050,000 and then the UK and German markets at 35,807,929 and 47,127,725 respectively. Whilst we have seen then that internet penetration is very strong in these affluent societies, there are some interesting developments in the emerging economies. Those countries in Asia that have traditionally had under developed economies, such as China and India , have very different levels of internet penetration; despite both countries attempting to develop their economic wealth. China , with a population of 1,306,313,812 has 94 million internet users (Appendix 1); this however translates to only 7.2% of the population. The Chinese middle class is only 4% of the population i.e. those who have household incomes of more than $20,000 but that translates into a market or 50 million people (Khanna, T) Ã¢â¬â a huge market for prospective investors in the country. This compares very favourably with internet penetration in India Ã¢â¬â where the population is very similar to China 's - 1,080,264,388.00 but there are only 18, 481,000 internet users, a penetration of 1.71% of the population. This may be due to Government intervention in China ; in a recent report Ã¢â¬Ëit has been found that China has nurtured and directed the economy ( Khanna, T 2005). In addition there is a difference in the GDP per capita Ã¢â¬â in China , the GDP per capita is $5,600, whereas in India it is only $3,100. However, in both countries there is a huge gap between the wealthiest and poorest people, both in
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Section I A. Write the names of all the photography and photography-related careers that you are aware of. Ã¢â¬â Wedding photography, Under-water photography, Sports photography, General photo careers. B. Then do a preliminary research and write the names of at least 5 more photography-related careers. Commercial photography Portrait and family photography Pet, Animal and wildlife photography Police, Law enforcement and criminal forensic imaging photography Aerial photography C. Next, pick three of these careers and write three questions you have about each. Portrait and family photography- What makes a great family photo?What composition techniques are most important when considering family photo's. Is Family photography a good paying job? is it popular? Underwater Photography- What equipment is recomended for use underwater. What is your favorite object to take pictures of under-water. What challenges are presented when taking photos under-water. Aerial Photography- How do you t ake pictures from an aerial view? what methods are used to get higher up? What makes for a good subject from an aerial view? How much money would an aerial photographer make normally? Section II A. Marine Photographer: This job entails taking pictures under water. This job includes taking pictures underwater using either SCUBA or un-maned rovers with camera's. -Education and training requirements would include being SCUBA certified or certified to do whatever kind of diving needed to take the pictures. -The salary for a marine photographer in California is between 40, and 50,000$ -As an underwater photographer you are taking pictures of marine life for either research and survey purposes or simply to capture the beauty found in the ocean. Aerial Photographer: Taking photos from top views such as pictures from an airplane looking down. Training for this job includes a Four year degree, you must specialize in photography, Flight training is required as well as on-the-job sky photograp hy training. -Salary for this type of photographer ranges from 50,000 Ã¢â¬â 200,000. -As an aerial photographer you may spend your time personally contracting your work or taking pictures for a specific company. These photos may be used for Survey purposes or they may be per-request by a single person. This would be a difficult job to get into as it requires much training and experience. Portrait and family photography: These photographers take pictures of people, families, places, or events. photographers require a good eye for a picture and have excellent technical and photographic skills. They must have good communication and people skills. Photographers must be good with computer programs such as photoshop and be commercially aware and good at marketing themselves. -Salaries for family photographers range between 12,000 and 50,000 a year or more. -These photographers may fall under a specialized type of photography focusing on family photographery or they may be general photo graphers taking a wide aray of pictures including portrait and family photography. B.Marine Photographer: response from Robert Bailey Hi there, thanks for the kind words happy to help. How long have you been into photography? Since 1990, I've always been interested in photography since the age of 10 and when I took up diving there was no question that I would be taking a camera in the water to bring back the amazing scenes and show people my discoveries. How did you get your start in photography? As a youngster I always had the idea I would like to draw and was complete crap! I picked up a camera one day and realized I could express my artistic self through a camera.I've never looked back. I remember the first time someone referred to me as an artist as being very significant. What are your key interests within the business? Although I am not a professional my work has been published, and I have worked intermittantly on professional projects on land and underwater. I associate with a quite a few professionals. I am always interested to see what sells in the market. You'd be surprised by what sells, opposed to what people like to hang on their walls. Pricing yourself in the market is important. Many pros complain people give their images away and devalue the market.I am always interested in what companies are willing to pay for. I often consult with professionals before I sell images to magazines. Where do you do most of your work? The majority of my work is done in UK waters. I live and work in the UK so it makes sense to take advantage of all the area has to offer. I do work overseas periodically, but I prefer cooler climates. One goal I have is to dive under sea ice in the Arctic, or Antarctic. What do you enjoy most about this type of photography? Being underwater is like no other environment, there's no distraction with mobile phones, and people talking.I like the challenge of being able to dive in harsh environments and show people the beauty, especially in the UK, as many feel it's often dark and gloomy and there's no colour. What is the most important thing to remember to get a good image? The single most important element in getting a good underwater picture is to get close to your subject, generally a maximum of three feet for most subjects, sometimes inches away. It depends on the size of the subject you are shooting. Obviously a 30 foot basking shark is different than a one inch shrimp.The other thing is all about understanding light, whether you are using artificial light,, or natural light, or balancing the two. The next thing to consider is the background and whether the subject is accessible or not. We try very hard as underwater photographers to not damage the environment for the sake of a picture. What is your favorite photograph of your own and why? I don't have one particular favourite. This changes all the time as the obsession to keep creating new material. I like the close up pictures of Lemon sharks I have done in black and white. There are so many others, hard to say really.Some the ones which has won national competitions are no longer my favourites as I think I can do better now. What types of equipment would you recommend for use under-water? My wife shoots with a Canon S95 and a simple housing, and make great pictures. I use a Nikon D300, Inon Z240 Strobes, and a variety of lenses. My my most used lenses are the Nikkor 60 mm macro for close up and small subjects. For wide angle work I use a Tokina 10-17mm. I'd like to stress good pictures are not about the equipment, it's all about the photographer. People often look at a good image and say you must have a good camera.This isn't the case. The camera is a the tool, the photogapher is the craftsman. You don't have to spend a lot of money to get good pictures. You have to invest the time, understand the local conditions, and know your subject. What is your favorite object to take pictures of under water? There are too many to list. I like s harks, shrimps, seals, sea slugs, fish, divers, wrecks when the visibility permits. What challenges are presented when taking photo's under-water? First of all, we aren't designed to be underwater. We are land creatures. So the first challenge is you need to be a skilled diver.All your equipment, bouyancy control in the water, air management needs to be spot on, otherwise you will never make a good image. Then there's the currents, tide, visibility, the cold, and the weather. Then there's the subject, most of which are always moving, and hardly ever where you want them, when you want them. I can honestly say making pictures underwater is probably more challenging than any other environment. I think this is why I am so obsessive about doing it, it's not easy. I really hope this helps you. Am happy to discuss further after work of course. If you need some images I will help you out. Don't hesitate to call me.Regards, RB How I Found Robert Bailey: I found Robert Bailey on Ã¢â¬Å"Underw aterPhotography. comÃ¢â¬ C. Underwater photography as a career in photography seems like the most interesting choice. I am currently a diver and find I am most comfortable while in the water. The best thing about capturing an image of a diver in clear water is the fact that it looks as though the diver is flying. This is an unnatural environment for humans and can be dangerous and to be able to capture the beauty in it is amazing. Bibliography URL (www. robertbaileyphotography. com). Robert Bailey, 11-27-12 Bailey, Robert. Underwater photographer. 11-27-12
Monday, January 6, 2020
IVYT 10404H My way of Thinking about Critical Thinking in Todays World Session 16 Assignment Name: Final Essay Questions Student Name: Michelle Kauffman Date you submit your work: May 4, 2012 The Assignment: In essay form, address the following questions: 1. What is critical thinking? First the word critical comes from two Greek roots, Kriticos which means discerning judgment and the other Greek root is kriterion which means standards. The text book from this class has described Critical Thinking as, Ã¢â¬Å"explicit thinking aimed at well-founded judgment, utilizing appropriate evaluation standards in an attempt to determine true worth, merit, or value of something.Ã¢â¬ The NationalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief. SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ practice was followed by the critical thinking of Plato (who recorded SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ thought), Aristotle, and the Greek skeptics, all of whom emphasized that things are often very different from what they appear to be and that only the trained mind is prepared to see through the way things look to us on the surface (delusive appearances) to the way they really are beneath the surface (the deeper realities of life). http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/a-brief-history-of-the-idea-of-critical-thinking/408 3. Give three examples of where stopping to think critically would help you throughout your lifetime. Identify an intellectual characteristic (pages 194-208) that would be used in each example. WOW! I have so many ideas but to name just three I would have to pick Religion, buying a home, and employment. The first is going to be Religion. Using the Intellectual Autonomy, from the text book states that we do not depend on others when deciding what to believe and what to reject. But influenced by others views on t he subject and that there is believable evidence to support the views. I am my own person and I believe in God and know my feelings and thoughts are really just between me and God. Nothing else matters when it comes down to this. I have looked into other religions and churches but have always come home toShow MoreRelatedCrit ical Thinking And Critical Thinking753 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaway from the normal. We begin the critical thought process of thinking outside the box. Critical thinking is the process of evaluating your decisions, providing positive or negative feedback, and researching conclusions. At the point when used correctly, it reduces the issue of complacency in how we carry on with everyday activities. 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My professors have played a role in my learning, with some of them helping me learn more than others, but even the best professors will be very little help to me if IÃ¢â¬â¢m deficient in the critical intellectual skills essential for learning. Over the semester I have seen significant improvement in my time management skills and reasoning and writing skills